Blake Peterson Research
- B.S. Chemistry, University of Nevada, Reno, 1990
- Ph.D. Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 1994
- Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Cancer Research Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University 1995-1998
- American Cancer Society Research Scholar, 2003
- Camille Dreyfus Teacher Scholar, 2004
- Assistant Professor of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, 1998-2004
- Associate Professor of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, 2004-2007
- Eminent Scholar of the Kansas Bioscience Authority, 2008-Present
- Regents Distinguished Professor of Medicinal Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2008-Present
- Elected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2013
Organic Synthesis, Bioorganic / Medicinal Chemistry,
and Chemical Biology
The Peterson lab at KU Med. Chem. focuses on the design, synthesis, and evaluation of biologically active small molecules. Our core science is organic chemistry, and we use modern methods of solution-phase and solid-phase synthesis to prepare modulators of biological pathways and probes of cellular biology. To investigate the activity and potency of these compounds, we employ diverse cellular and biochemical assays, with a particular emphasis on fluorescence-based techniques. Four of our research interests are outlined below.
1) Chemical biology of cellular receptors
We are studying compounds that mimic receptors found on the surface of living mammalian cells. These artificial cell surface receptors can enable the delivery of cell-impermeable molecules through a mechanism similar to natural receptor-mediated endocytosis. These compounds are synthesized by coupling ligand-binding motifs to membrane anchors such as N-alkyl-3beta-cholesterylamine. When added to mammalian cells, this mimic of cholesterol inserts into cellular plasma membranes, projects the linked ligand-binding motif from the cell surface, and rapidly cycles between the cell surface and intracellular early/recycling endosomes, engaging a membrane trafficking pathway accessed by many natural cell surface receptors. In this way, these synthetic receptors can enable cells to internalize specific drugs, proteins, and other poorly permeable molecules that interact with the ligand-binding motif. This strategy, termed synthetic receptor targeting, can be used to define new pathways across biological membrane barriers both in vitro and in vivo. The construction of artificial cell surface receptors as molecular prostheses, designed to seamlessly augment the molecular machinery of living cells, represents an exciting new frontier in chemical biology.
2) Modulators of receptors and enzymes
To create small molecules with potential anticancer or antiviral activity, we synthesize compounds designed to control cellular receptors and enzymes involved in pathogenesis. We study structure-activity relationships to optimize activity and potency and allow the preparation of derivatives useful for the identification of specific target proteins. We have investigated ligands of nuclear hormone receptors involved in the proliferation of hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers, antiviral ribonucleosides that function as inhibitors and mutagenic substrates of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, and derivatives of poorly understood immunomodulators as tools for identification of cellular targets. Representative examples of compounds previously under investigation are shown above.
3) Synthetic mimics of viral peptides
The use of endocytic uptake mechanisms to deliver poorly permeable molecules into mammalian cells is often plagued by entrapment and degradation of material in highly hydrolytic late endosomes and lysosomes. To prevent the exposure of cargo to these destructive membrane-sealed compartments, we are synthesizing compounds designed to mimic membrane escape mechanisms employed by viruses and other intracellular pathogens. By targeting pH-dependent membrane-lytic peptides such as PC4 and a disulfide-linked fluorophore to less hydrolytic early/recycling endosomes of mammalian cells, membranes of these endosomes can be selectively disrupted, resulting in cleavage of the disulfide and escape of the fluorophore into the cytosol and nucleus with low toxicity. The ability to deliver disulfide-linked cargo into and release this cargo from relatively non-hydrolytic early/recycling endosomes may be useful for the delivery of a variety of sensitive molecules into living mammalian cells.
4) Fluorescent molecular probes
Fluorescent small molecules represent powerful molecular tools that complement other biochemical and genetic approaches for dissecting biological systems. We synthesize novel fluorescent molecular probes to label cellular targets of biologically active compounds and create sensors of biochemical changes in physiology. Some of our work in this area has included the synthesis of the Pennsylvania Green fluorophore and derivatives. This hybrid of Tokyo Green and Oregon Green is substantially more hydrophobic, photostable, and pH-insensitive than fluorescein, making it a valuable cell-permeable fluorophore.
Publications by Blake R. Peterson and associates
- Hymel, D.; Woydziak, Z. R; Peterson, B. R. “Detection of Protein-Protein Interactions by Proximity-Driven SNAr Reactions of Lysine-Linked Fluorophores” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 5241-5244.
- Woydziak, Z. R; Fu, L.; Peterson, B. R. “Efficient and Scalable Synthesis of 4-Carboxy-Pennsylvania Green Methyl Ester: A Hydrophobic Building Block for Fluorescent Molecular Probes” Synthesis 2014, 46, 158-164.
- Choi, S.; Aljakna, A.; Srivastava, U.; Peterson, B. R.; Deng, B.; Prat, A.; Korstanje, R.; “Decreased APOE-containing HDL Subfractions and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of Serum in Mice Lacking Pcsk9” Lipids Health Dis. 2013, 12, 112.
- Bender, A.; Woydziak, Z. R; Fu, L.; Branden, M.; Zhou, Z.; Ackley, B. D.; Peterson, B. R. “Novel Acid-Activated Fluorophores Reveal a Dynamic Wave of Protons in the Intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans” ACS Chem. Biol. 2013, 8, 636-642.
- Mottram, L. F.; Forbes, S.; Ackley, B. D.; Peterson, B. R. “Hydrophobic Analogues of Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 101: Potent Fluorescent Probes of Mitochondria in Living C. elegans” Beilstein J. Org. Chem., 2012, 8, 2156-2165.
- Arnold, J. J.; Sharma, S. D.; Smidansky, E. D.; Feng, J. Y.; Ray, A. S.; Kireeva, M. L.; Cho, A.; Perry, J.; Vela, J. E.; Park, Y.; Xu, Y.; Tian, Y.; Babusis, D.; Barauskus, O.; Peterson, B. R.; Gnatt, A.; Kashlev, M.; Zhong, W.; Cameron, C. E. "Sensitivity of Mitochondrial Transcription and Resistance of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Nuclear Transcription to Antiviral Ribonucleosides" PLOS Pathogens 2012, 8, e1003030.
- Hymel, D. and Peterson, B. R. "Synthetic Cell Surface Receptors for Delivery of Therapeutics and Probes" Adv. Drug. Del. Rev.2012, 64, 797-810.
- Chen, J., Young, S. M., Allen, C., Seeber, A., Péli-Gulli, M-P., Panchaud, N., Waller, A., Ursu, O., Yao, T., Golden, J. E., Strouse, J. J., Carter, M. B., Kang, H., Bologa, C. G., Edwards, B., Peterson, B. R., Aubé, J., Werner-Washburne, M., Loewith, R. J., De Virgilio, C., Sklar, L. A. "Identification of a small molecular inhibitor of yeast TORC1 using a flow cytometry based multiplex screen" ACS Chem. Biol., 2012, 7, 715-722.
- Ravindra, K. C., Narayan, V., Lushington, G. H., Peterson, B. R., and Prabhu, K. S. "Targeting of histone acetyltransferase p300 by cyclopentenone prostaglandin ∆12-PGJ2 through covalent binding to Cys1438" Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2012, 25, 337-347.
- Lönnfors, M., Engberg, O. J. Peterson, B. R., and Slotte, J. P. “Interaction of 3beta-amino-5-cholestene with phospholipids in binary and ternary bilayer membranes” Langmuir, 2012, 28, 648-655.
- Woydziak, Z. R., Fu, L., and Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis of Fluorinated Benzophenones, Xanthones, Acridones, and Thioxanthones by Iterative Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution" J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77, 473-481.
- Quinn, K.L., Henriques, M., Tabuchi, A., Hong Yang, A. H., Cheng, W-E., Tole, S., Yu, H., Luo, A., Charbonney, E., Tullis, E., Lazarus, A., Robinson, L.A., Ni, H., Peterson, B. R., Wolfgang M. Kuebler, W. M., Slutsky, A. S., Zhang, H. "Human neutrophil peptides mediate endothelia-monocyte interaction, foam cell formation and platelet activation" Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2011, 31, 2070-2079.
- Law, M., Morales, J. L., Mottram, L.F., Iyer, A., Peterson, B. R., and August, A. "Structural requirements for the inhibition of Calcium Mobilization and Mast Cell Activation by the Pyrazole Derivative BTP2" Int. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol.2011, 43, 1228-1239.
- Zhang, J., Cai, S., Peterson, B. R., Kris-Etherton, P. M., and Vanden Heuvel J. P. "Development of a Cell-based, High-Throughput Screening Assay for Cholesterol Efflux Using a Fluorescent Mimic of Cholesterol" Assay Drug Dev. Tech., 2011, 9, 136-146.
- Sun, Q., Wu, R., Cai, S., Lin, Y. Sellers, L., Sakamoto, K., He, B., and Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Analogues of AKT (Protein Kinase B) Inhibitor-IV" J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 1126-1139.
- Wu, R., Smidansky, E. D. Oh, H. S., Takhampunya, R., Padmanabhan, R., Cameron, C. E., Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis of a 6-Methyl-7-Deaza Analogue of Adenosine that Potently Inhibits Replication of Polio and Dengue Viruses" J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53, 7958-7966.
- Mercer, J. C., Qi, Q., Mottram, L. F., Law, M., Bruce, D., Iyer, A., Morales, J. L., Yamazaki, H., Shirao, T., Peterson, B. R., and August, A. "Chemico-Genetic Identification of Drebrin as a Regulator of Calcium Responses" Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., 2010, 42 337-345.
- Sun, Q., Cai, S., and Peterson, B. R. "Practical Synthesis of 3beta-Amino-5-Cholestene and Related 3beta-Halides Involving i-Steroid and Retro-i-Steroid Rearrangements" Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 567-570
- Sun, Q., Cai, S., and Peterson, B. R. "Selective Disruption of Early/Recycling Endosomes: Release of Disulfide-Linked Cargo Mediated by an N-Alkyl-3beta-Cholesterylamine-Capped Peptide" J. Am. Chem. Soc.2008, 130, 10064-10065.
- Sambhy, V., Peterson, B. R. and Sen, A. "Multifunctional Silane Polymers for Persistent Surface Derivatization and Their Antimicrobial Properties" Langmuir2008, 24, 7549-7558.
- Sun, Q., Edathil, J.P., Wu, R., Smidansky, E. D. Cameron, C. E., and Peterson B. R.* "One-Pot Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-Triphosphates from Nucleoside 5'-H-Phosphonates" Org. Lett.2008, 10, 1703-1706.
- Sambhy, V, Peterson, B. R., and Sen, A. "Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activities of Pyridinium Polymers as a Function of the Spatial Relationship between the Positive Charge and the Pendant Alkyl Tail" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2008, 120, 1270-1274.
- Peterson, B. R. "Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis" The Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology, 2008, 1-13.
- Graci, J. D., Too, K., Smidansky, E.D., Edathil, J. P., Barr, E. W., Harki, D. A., Galarraga, J. E., Bollinger, J. M., Peterson, B. R., Loakes, D.; Brown, D. M. and Cameron C. E. "Lethal Mutagenesis of Picornaviruses with N6-Modified Purine Nucleoside Analogues" Antimicro. Agents Chemother. 2008, 52, 971-979.
- Zamyatkin, D. F., Parra, F., Martín Alonso, J. M., Harki, D. A., Peterson, B. R., Grochulski,P. and Ng, K. K. S. "Structural Insights into Mechanisms of Catalysis and Inhibition in Norwalk Virus Polymerase" J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 7705-7712.
- Graci, J. D., Harki, D. A., Korneeva, V. S., Edathil, J. P., Too, K., Franco, D., Smidansky, E. D., Paul, A. V., Peterson, B. R., Brown, D. M., Loakes, D., and Cameron, C. E. “Lethal Mutagenesis of Poliovirus is Mediated by a Mutagenic Pyrimidine Analogue”, J. Virol. 2007, 81, 11256-11266.
- Mottram L. F., Maddox, E. Schwab, M., Beaufils, F., and Peterson, B. R. “A Concise Synthesis of the Pennsylvania Green Fluorophore and Labeling of Intracellular Targets with O6-Benzylguanine Derivatives” Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 3741-3744.
- Harki, D.A, Graci, J. D., Edathil, J. P., Castro, C., Cameron, C. E., and Peterson, B. R. “Synthesis of a Universal 5-Nitroindole Ribonucleotide and Incorporation into RNA by a Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase” ChemBioChem, 2007, 8, 1359-1362.
- Coleman, J. D., Sandeep Prabhu, K., Thompson, J. T., Sreenivasula Reddy, P., Peters, J. M., Peterson, B. R., Reddy, C. C. and Vanden Heuvel, J. P.“The oxidative stress mediator 4-hydroxynonenal is an intracellular agonist of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta)” Free Radical Biology & Medicine2007, 42, 1155-1164.
- Boonyarattanakalin, S., Hu, J., Dykstra-Rummel, S., August, A., and Peterson, B. R. “Endocytic Delivery of Vancomycin Mediated by a Synthetic Cell Surface Receptor: Rescue of Bacterially Infected Mammalian Cells and Tissue Targeting In Vivo” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 268-269.
- Peterson, B. R. “Small Molecule Triggers of Tadpole Metamorphosis” ACS Chem. Biol. 2006, 1, 559-561.
- Harki, D. A., Graci, J. D., Galarraga, J. E., Chain, W. J., Cameron, C. E., and Peterson, B. R. “Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of 5-Substituted Cytidine Analogues: Identification of a Potent Inhibitor of Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases” J. Med. Chem.2006, 49, 6166-6169.
- Boonyarattanakalin, S., Martin, S. E., Sun, Q. and Peterson, B. R. “A Synthetic Mimic of Human Fc Receptors: Defined Chemical Modification of Cell Surfaces Enables Efficient Endocytic Uptake of Human Immunoglobulin-G” J. Am. Chem. Soc.2006, 128, 11463-11470.
- Sandbhy, V., MacBride M.M., Peterson, B. R. and Sen, A. “Silver Bromide Nanoparticles/Polymer Composites: Dual Action Tunable Antimicrobial Materials” J. Am. Chem. Soc.2006, 128, 9798-9808.
News Highlight of Manuscript #36:
- “Silver Bromide Shines in Bacteria-Fighting Coating” Chem. Eng. News, 2006, 84 (29), 8.
- Mottram L. F., Boonyarattanakalin, S. Kovel, R. E. and Peterson, B. R. “The Pennsylvania Green Fluorophore: A Hybrid of Oregon Green and Tokyo Green for the Construction of Hydrophobic and pH-Insensitive Molecular Probes” Org. Lett.2006, 8, 581-584.
News Highlight of Manuscript #35:
- “New Fluorescein Adds to Cellular Probe Arsenal” Chem. Eng. News, 2006, 84, 33.
- Boonyarattanakalin, S., Athavankar, S., Sun, Q. and Peterson, B. R. “Synthesis of an Artificial Cell Surface Receptor that Enables Oligohistidine Affinity Tags to Function as Metal-Dependent Cell-Penetrating Peptides” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 386-387.
- Peterson, B. R. “Synthetic Mimics of Mammalian Cell Surface Receptors: Prosthetic Molecules that Augment Living Cells” Org. Biomol. Chem.2005, 3, 3607-3612.
- Selected as a “Hot Article” by the editors of Org. Biomol. Chem.
- Clark, D. D. and Peterson, B. R. “Fluorescence-Based Cloning of a Protein Tyrosine Kinase with a Yeast Tribrid System” ChemBioChem2005, 6, 1442-1448.
- Selected as the cover article for August 2005.
- Zhao, X., MacBride, M. M. Peterson, B. R., Pfaff, D. W, and Vasudevan, N. “Calcium flux in neuroblastoma cells is a coupling mechanism between non-genomic and genomic modes of estrogens” Neuroendocrinology 2005, 81, 174-182.
- Boonyarattanakalin, S., Martin, S. E., Dykstra, S. A. and Peterson, B. R. “Synthetic Mimics of Small Mammalian Cell Surface Receptors” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 16379-16386.
News Highlight of Manuscript #30:
- Rusk, N. “Alternatives to a Horse” Nature Methods, 2005, 2, 88-89.
- Muddana, S. S., Price A. M., MacBride, M. M. and Peterson, B. R. “11beta-Alkyl-Δ9-19-Nortestosterone Derivatives: High Affinity Ligands and Potent Partial Agonists of the Androgen Receptor " J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 4985-4988.
- Zumbuehl, A., Jeannerat, D., Martin, S. E., Sohrmann, M., Stano, P., Vigassy, T., Clark, D. D., Hussey, S. L., Peter, M., Peterson, B. R., Pretsch, E., Walde, P., and Carreira, E. M. "An Amphotericin B-Fluorescein Conjugate as a Powerful Probe for Biochemical Studies of the Membrane" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 5181-5185.
- Muddana, S. S. and Peterson, B. R.“Facile Synthesis of CIDs: Biotinylated Estrone Oximes Efficiently Heterodimerize Estrogen Receptor and Streptavidin Proteins in Yeast Three Hybrid Systems” Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 1409-1412.
- Xu, J., Szakal, C., Martin, S. E., Peterson, B. R., Wucher, A., and Winograd, N. "Molecule-specific Imaging with Mass Spectrometry and a Buckminsterfullerene Probe: Application to Characterizing Solid Phase Synthesized Combinatorial Libraries" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3902-3909.
- Athavankar, S. and Peterson, B. R. "Control of Gene Expression with Small Molecules: Biotin-Mediated Acylation of Targeted Lysine Residues in Recombinant Yeast" Chem. Biol. 2003, 10, 1245-1253.
- DeGrazia, M. J., Thompson J., Vanden Heuvel, J. P., and Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis of a High-Affinity Fluorescent PPARgamma Ligand for High-Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Assays" Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003, 11, 4325-4332.
- Muddana, S. S. and Peterson, B. R. "Fluorescent Cellular Sensors of Steroid Receptor Ligands" ChemBioChem 2003, 4, 848-855.
- Hussey, S. L., Muddana, S. S., and Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis of a beta-Estradiol-Biotin Chimera that Potently Heterodimerizes Estrogen Receptor and Streptavidin Proteins in a Yeast Three Hybrid System" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 3692-3693.
- Martin, S. E. and Peterson, B. R. "Non-Natural Cell Surface Receptors: Synthetic Peptides Capped with N-Cholesterylglycine Efficiently Deliver Proteins into Mammalian Cells" Bioconjugate Chem. 2003, 14, 67-74.
News Highlight of Manuscript #21:
- Henry, C. M. "Synthetic Receptors Pull Molecules into Cells" Chem. Eng. News, 2003, 81, 38.
- Clark, D. D. and Peterson, B. R. "Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Recombinant Yeast Lacking the ERG6 Gene" ChemBioChem 2003, 4, 101-107.
- Peterson, B. R. "Augmenting Vitamin D to Combat Genetic Disease" Chem. Biol. 2002, 9, 1265-1266.
- Varner, A. S., De Vos, M. L., Creaser, S. P., Peterson, B. R., and Smith, C. D. "A Fluorescence-based High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Characterization of Palmitoyl Acyl Transferase Activity" Analytical Biochem. 2002, 308, 160-167.
- Harki, D.A, Graci, J. D., Korneeva, V. S., Ghosh, S. K. B., Hong, Z, Cameron, C. E., and Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a mutagenic and non-hydrogen bonding ribonucleoside analogue: 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-nitropyrrole" Biochemistry2002, 41, 9026-9033.
- Clark, D. D. and Peterson, B. R. "Rapid Detection of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Recombinant Yeast Expressing a Universal Substrate" J. Proteome Res. 2002, 1, 207-209.
- Hussey S. L. and Peterson, B. R. "Efficient Delivery of Streptavidin to Mammalian Cells: Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Regulated by a Synthetic Ligand" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 6265-6273.
- Martin, S. E. and Peterson, B. R. "A Colorimetric Enzyme-Linked On-Bead Assay for Identification of Synthetic Substrates of Protein Tyrosine Kinases" J. Pept. Sci. 2002, 8, 227-233.
- Creaser, S. P. and Peterson, B. R. "Sensitive and Rapid Analysis of Protein Palmitoylation with a Synthetic Cell-Permeable Mimic of Src Oncoproteins" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2444-2445.
- Hussey, S. L., He, E., and Peterson, B. R. "Synthesis of Chimeric 7-alpha-Substituted Estradiol Derivatives Linked to Cholesterol and Cholesterylamine" Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 415-418.
- Hussey S. L., He, E., and Peterson, B. R. "A Synthetic Membrane-Anchored Antigen Efficiently Promotes Uptake of Antifluorescein Antibodies and Associated Protein A by Mammalian Cells" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123,12712-12713.
Publications from Blake Peterson's Postdoctoral, Graduate, and Undergraduate Studies:
- Chytil, M., Peterson, B. R., Erlanson, D. A., and Verdine, G. L. “The Orientation of the AP-1 Heterodimer on DNA Strongly Affects Transcriptional Potency” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998, 95, 14076-14081.
- Marti, T., Peterson, B. R., Fürer, A., Mordasini-Denti, T., Zarske, J., Jaun, B., Diederich, F. and Gramlich, V. “Macrocyclic Steroid Receptors by Pd(0)-Catalyzed Cross-coupling Reactions: Dissolution of Cholesterol in Aqueous Solution and Investigations of the Principles Governing Selective Molecular Recognition of Steroidal Substrates” Helv. Chim. Acta 1998, 81, 109-144.
- Sun, L. J., Peterson, B. R., and Verdine, G. L. “Dual Role of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Insert Region in DNA Recognition and Cooperative Contacts to Activator Protein 1” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1997, 94, 4919-4924.
- Peterson, B. R., Sun, L. J., and Verdine G. L. “A Critical Arginine Residue Mediates Cooperativity in the Contact Interface Between Transcription Factors NFAT and AP-1” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996, 93, 13671-13676.
- Peterson, B. R., Mordasini-Denti, T., and Diederich, F. “Cavity Depth and Width Effects on Cyclophane-Steroid Recognition: Molecular Complexation of Cholesterol and Progesterone in Aqueous Solution” Chem. Biol.1995, 2, 139-146.
- Peterson, B. R., Wallimann, P., Carcanague, D. R., and Diederich, F. “Steroid Complexation by Cyclophane Receptors in Aqueous Solution: Substrate Selectivity, Enthalpic Driving Force for Cavity Inclusion, and Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation” Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 401-421.
- Peterson, B. R. “Steroid Recognition in Aqueous Solution by Novel Monocyclic and Tricyclic Cyclophane Receptors” Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles. December 1994.
- Peterson, B. R., and Diederich, F. “Dissolution of Cholesterol in Aqueous Solution by a Synthetic Receptor” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.1994, 33, 1625-1628.
News Highlights of Manuscript #3:
- “Synthetic Receptor Dissolves Cholesterol in Aqueous Solution” Chem. Eng. News, 1994, 72, 24.
- Bradley, D. “Crafting a Cage for Cholesterol” Science, 1994, 266, 34.
- Bylinsky, G. “Cholesterol Cages” Fortune, 1994,130, 245.
- Person, R. V., Peterson, B. R., and Lightner, D. A. “Bilirubin Conformational Analysis and Circular Dichroism” J. Am. Chem. Soc.1994, 116, 42-59.
- Lightner, D. A., Person, R. V., Peterson, B. R., Puzicha, G., Pu, Y.-M., and Bojadziev, S. “Conformational Analysis and Circular Dichroism of Bilirubin, the Yellow Pigment of Jaundice” In Biomolecular Spectroscopy II, Birge, R. R., Nafie, L. A., Eds., Proc. SPIE 1432, 1991, pp 2-13.